History of the names of Hanoi Capital

History of the names of Hanoi Capital
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     During the period of Chinese rule, Hanoi used to be called Tong Binh district, Hanoi appeared in the history books from the years 454-456 of the North and South dynasties of China.

     In 545, Ly Bi defeated the Luong army and established Van Xuan, an independent state. He called himself Ly Nam De, capitalized at the mouth of the To Lich river in Hanoi. He established the Van Tho Palace, which is a meeting place to discuss water. Ly Nam De also built a large temple in Yen Hoa ward (Yen Phu) with the name Khai Quoc, the predecessor of Tran Quoc Pagoda today.

     Later, Hanoi was renamed to Dai La (Dai La was originally the name of the outermost ring surrounding the smaller inner ring). The Book of Revelation in Vietnamese History, Thong Luan Section reads:

     “This citadel was built by Truong Ba Nghi from the second Great Calendar year (767) of the Tang dynasty; the 7th Trinh Nguyen year (791) and Trieu Xuong added; the 3rd Nguyen Hoa year (808) and Truong Chu repaired again; in the 4th Truong Khanh year (824), Ly Nguyen Gia moved to the Lich river, he built a small citadel, which was called La Thanh; the 7th Ham Thong year (866), Cao Bien built the suburbs surround “kim thanh”, which is also called La Thanh. “

     Long Do (navel dragon) is also a name of Hanoi, but it is not an official name, this name appeared from the Cao Bien period. Legend has it that, in 866, when Cao Bien first built Dai La citadel, he saw a god who called himself Long Do. Therefore in history books often call Thang Long as Long Do land.

     During the Northern domination period, the Tuy dynasty (581-618) and Tang dynasty (618-907), these two dynasties dominated the Long Bien area (present-day Bac Ninh). Hanoi.

     Thanh is also known as Dai La. Dai La, or Dai La Thanh, It is the outermost name surrounding the capital city. According to ancient architecture, Kinh Do often has the “Three Siege Citadel”: the innermost is the Forbidden City (ie the purple city) where the king and the royal family are, the citadel is the citadel and the outermost is Dai La citadel. In 866 Cao Bien added Dai La to become bigger and more stable than before. From then on, this city was called Dai La citadel. For example, in the royal proclamation of moving the capital of King Lý Thái Tổ in 1010, it was written: “… The case of Đại Thành city, the former capital of Cao Vương (ie Cao Biền) in the middle of the heaven and earth …” (Complete letter , Volume I, H, 1993, p. 241).

     When Vietnam gained its independence, Hanoi then became the capital of Dai Viet in the 11th century, at this time, Hanoi was called Thang Long (meaning “dragon soar”), after Ly Cong Uan proposes to move the capital in 1010. Thang Long was the capital until 1397, when the capital was moved to Thanh Hoa (ie Tay Do). Thang Long was then called Dong Do. The Dai Viet Book of Historical Records states: “In the summer of April, Dinh Suu (1397), Deputy General Le Han Thuong (Ho Ho Thuong Thuong – TM) considered the domination as Dong Do” (Encyclopedia Sd – p. 192). In the Ministry of Kham Viet, a history reviewer, the historian Nguyen noted: “Dong Do means Thang Long, at that time Thanh Thanh was called Tay Do and Thang Long was Dong Do” (Cuong item – Volume 2, H 1998, p 700).

     In 1408, Dai Ngu of Ho’s father and son were invaded by the Ming army and Dong Do was renamed Dongguan by the Minh Dynasty.

     In 1428, after Le Loi’s army liberated the country, Dongguan was renamed Dong Kinh – the name European transliterated to Tonkin. The book Dai Viet wrote the full-length history book, saying the birth of this name was as follows: “In the summer, in April of the year of Dinh Mui (1427), the King (ie Le Loi – TM) from the cinema in Bodhi brought his army into Based in Dong Kinh citadel, King Le Loi renamed Thuan Thien and changed the national name Dai Viet to be based in Dong Kinh. On the 15th, he was enthroned in Dong Kinh, ie Thang Long citadel. there was Tây Đô, so called Thăng Long citadel as Đông Kinh “(Complete Letter – ibid. Episode 2, page 293).

     During the Tay Son period, because the capital at Phu Xuan Thanh was also called Bac Thanh.

     In 1802, when the Nguyen Dynasty moved the capital to Hue, it was renamed Thang Long again, but this time the word “Long” signified prosperity, not the dragon, on the grounds that the dragon was a symbol of The king, if he is not here, he cannot use the word “Long” as “dragon” (Tran Huy Lieu (chief editor), History of Hanoi Capital, H. 1960, page 81).

     Later, King Gia Long also ordered the demolition of the old citadel, because the king did not close the capital in Thang Long, but the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long was too large.

     In 1831, Emperor Minh Mang established Hanoi: the province was in (inner) two rivers (ha), namely Red and Day rivers. When Vietnam came into contact with the West, the Sino-Vietnamese name of Hanoi Dong Kinh, written as Tonkin and popularized by Europeans. In 1873, the French began to attack Hanoi and 10 years later, the whole took over. From 1887, Hanoi became the capital of French Indochina.

     In 1940, Hanoi was invaded by Japanese fascists, and in 1945, Hanoi was liberated and home to government agencies of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1946 to 1954, Hanoi was a fierce battleground between the Viet Minh and the French army. After being liberated on October 10, 1954, Hanoi became the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

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